Remembering William Randolph Hearst, Part 1 of 3
Publishing, Politics & Marriage
When 88-year-old senior citizen William Randolph Hearst (the inspiration for the movies Citizen Kane and The Cat’s Meow) died in 1951, he left behind a legacy of achievement in newspaper publishing, political influence, architecture, and a massive art collection.
Right, William Randolph Hearst in 1904. (Photo: B. M. Clinedinst / U.S. Library of Congress)
Born in 1863 in San Francisco to wealthy parents (father George Hearst was a U.S Senator, millionaire goldmine owner and mining engineer), as a child and teenager William Randolph Hearst was inspired by the great European castles, architecture, art and history he absorbed during two extensive “Grand Tours” with his mother Phoebe Apperson Hearst.
His first foray into publishing newspapers came in 1887 when he asked his father to give him control of The San Francisco Examiner. Soon after he moved to New York City and purchased The New York Journal so that he could expand his newspaper empire. Hearst is known for hiring top talent (Mark Twain, Jack London) and for creating what was called at the time “yellow journalism“…today we know it as “tabloid journalism”, with highly sensationalized stories that weren’t always factual.
William Randolph Hearst is credited for pushing the U.S. into the 1898 Spanish-American War with the rhetoric and editorials published in his newspapers, that backed the war.
(Millicent Hearst circa early 1900’s Photo: Pixabay)
While attending Harvard University (he was expelled in 1885 at age 22 for various pranks), William Randolph Hearst met his first long-standing love, waitress Tessie Powers.
It wasn’t until 1897 that his eye was caught by then 16-year-old Millicent Wilson, a New York showgirl (her mother was reputed to be a brothel owner).
The day before he turned 40 in 1903, William Randolph Hearst married Millicent Willson, and their honeymoon drive across Europe spawned the launch of a new magazine he published, Motor.
From this magazine, yet another Hearst publishing empire was born – Hearst Magazines (Good Housekeeping, Harper’s Bazaar, Cosmopolitan, etc.).
Like his father before him, William Randolph Hearst’s ambition and desire to influence politics prompted him to run for public office in the early 1900’s with mixed success. In 1902 & 1904 he was elected as a New York Democrat to the U. S. House of Representatives; in 1905 he ran unsuccessfully as an candidate for Mayor of New York City, and after losing a 1906 campaign for consideration as a candidate as governor, he dropped out of politics.
(William Randolph Hearst 1910 Photo: Bain News Service / U.S. Library of Congress)
Between 1904 – 1915, William Randolph Hearst continued to buy more newspapers, eventually owning 31 newspapers in 13 cities (daily and Sunday papers combined). He and wife Millicent Hearst lived together in New York and had five sons – beginning with George Randolph Hearst Jr. in 1904, William Randolph Hearst., Jr (1908), John Randolph Hearst (1910), and ending with the birth of their twin boys Randolph Apperson Hearst and Elbert Willson Hearst in 1915 (Elbert was later known as David Whitmire).
Millicent and William Randolph Hearst often visited the San Simeon area in California with their sons to camp and enjoy life on the 240,000 acre Hearst Ranch (property originally purchased by his father George Hearst and passed along to his widow Phoebe) as a family, until 1919. William inherited the ranch from his mother Phoebe that year and began living there while Millicent remained living in New York City with their sons.
Below from left, William Randolph Hearst in 1920 outside the International Studio in New York, with movie director Robert G. Vignola and Hearst’s close friend, The New York Journal newspaper editor Arthur Brisbane.
(William Randolph Hearst, Robert G. Vignola & Arthur Brisbane 1920 Photo: Motion Picture News)
(Marion Davies circa 1910s-1920s Photo: Bain News Service / U.S. Library of Congress)
William Randolph Hearst wasn’t alone in California; new love Marion Davies, a former Ziegfield Follies showgirl and actress he’d met in New York the previous year, was living with him.
He’d also begun working closely with architect Julia Morgan beginning in 1919, on the design and construction of what would become known as Hearst Castle, atop a hill on the ranch.
William Randolph Hearst was 56 when construction on Hearst Castle began – he’d be 84 when it was completed.
Millicent Hearst continued to visit the Hearst ranch with family in the early 1920’s, but by 1926 she and William were estranged and separated. Millicent kept her own New York City residence while William Randolph Hearst had several homes in California which he lived in with Marion.
(David Whitmire Hearst, John Randolph Hearst, William Randolph Hearst Jr., William Randolph Hearst Sr., George Hearst, and Randolph Hearst 1920s Photo).
William Randolph Hearst and his five sons at a 1920’s costume party at Hearst Castle hosted by Marion Davies.
Despite their separation, Millicent Hearst continued to visit the ranch and in 1929 even played host (as William’s wife) at Hearst Castle when Winston Churchill visited San Simeon.